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Ayurveda is the oldest surviving complete medical system in the world. Derived from its ancient Sanskrit roots – ayus (life) and ved (knowledge) – and offering a rich, comprehensive outlook to a healthy life, its origins go back nearly 5000 years. To when it was expounded and practiced by the same spiritual rishis, who laid the foundations of the Vedic civilisation in India, by organising the fundamentals of life into proper systems.
The main source of knowledge in this field therefore remain the Vedas, the divine books of knowledge they propounded, and more specifically the fourth of the series, namely Atharvaveda that dates back to around 1000 BC. Of the few other treatises on Ayurveda that have survived from around the same time, the most famous are Charaka Samhita and the Sushruta Samhita which concentrate on internal medicine and surgery respectively. The Astanga Hridayam is a more concise compilation of earlier texts that was created about a thousand years ago. These between them forming a greater part of the knowledge base on Ayurveda as it is practiced today.
The art of Ayurveda had spread around in the 6th century BC to Tibet, China, Mongolia, Korea and Sri Lanka, carried over by the Buddhist monks travelling to those lands. Although not much of it survives in original form, its effects can be seen in the various new age concepts that have originated from there.
Ayurveda therefore is not simply a health care system but a form of lifestyle adopted to maintain perfect balance and harmony within the human existence, from the most abstract transcendental values to the most concrete physiological expressions. Based on the premise that life represents an intelligent co-ordination of the Atma (Soul), Mana (Mind), Indriya (Senses) and Sharira (Body). 
That revolves around the five dense elements that go into the making of the constitution of each individual, called Prakriti
Which in turn is determined by the vital balance of the three physical energies - Vata, Pitta, Kapha and the three mental energies - Satwa, Rajas, Tamas.

Your personal constitution, which is your individual metabolic make-up, helps determine how your mind and body will instinctively react when confronted with and how much effect any stimulus, as a specific taste or emotion, will have on you. This inborn metabolic pattern is called Prakriti. The personality traits most prized or the qualities disliked all equally arise from these tendencies inherent in your prakriti.
Determined by the doshic state of your parents at the time of your conception, your constitution is influenced by your parents' genetics also. And once set along with the tendencies, it cannot be altered. However, one can learn to adjust so as to reduce distortions, prevent imbalances and treat them when necessary. Also learn the whys and hows of dealing with others. Knowing your own constitution thus allows you to understand the workings of your mind and body better, thereby allowing greater control over the traits through planned and adequate changes incorporated into your lifestyle.